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About: Chrissy Meyer

Recent Posts by Chrissy Meyer

December 2017 specialty sire lists

Listes des taureaux spécialisés de décembre 2017

No matter what genetic plan you’ve put in place on your farm, we have daughter-proven and genomic-proven bulls to meet your goals.

We have access to all you need in one place. You can find lists to download and print with any of Alta’s Holstein and Jersey specialty sires. Below, you’ll find A2A2, polled, outcross, robot-suited and kappa casein sires. There is also with DWP$ and WT$, milking speed, and registry status listings and info on our highest fertility beef bulls to be used for terminal dairy crosses.

Peu importe le plan génétique mis en place dans votre ferme, nous avons les taureaux éprouvés pour les filles et éprouvés pour la génomique pour vous aider à atteindre vos buts.

Nous avons accès à tout ce dont vous avez besoin en un seul endroit. Vous pouvez trouver des listes à télécharger et à imprimer pour les taureaux spécialisés Holstein et Jersey d’Alta. Ci-dessous, vous trouverez des taureaux A2A2, sans cornes, sans parenté, adaptés aux robots et kappa-caséine. Il y a aussi des listes avec DWP$ et WT$, la vitesse de traite et le statut des enregistrements et des renseignements sur les taureaux de boucherie à haute fertilité à être utilisés pour les croisements laitiers terminaux.

Travaillez avec votre conseiller Alta pour personnaliser votre plan génétique en utilisant notre Recherche avancée de taureaux ou le GPS Alta.

Work with your trusted Alta advisor to customize your genetic plan using our Advanced Bull Search or Alta GPS.
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Not all genomic sires are created equal

Genomic proofs give us the confidence to use exciting sires sooner! Be assured that these bulls will deliver on their genetic promises, since genomic testing provides an immediate reliability of nearly 70% for production, health and conformation traits.

You might be wondering, what are the different genomic sire options? Let’s break them down…

Alta Advantage logo for Facebook

Alta ADVANTAGE

Our 23 newest bulls are available only to our Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds. These Alta ADVANTAGE only sires offer diverse trait specialties and elite rankings on many customized genetic plans.

New, young bulls simply don’t produce enough semen to be readily available to all farms around the globe. So while we work to build semen inventory, we give our loyal Alta ADVANTAGE partner herds priority access to these elite, new sires that best fit their customized genetic plans.

G-STAR lgo for Facebook

G-STARS

Once a bull has made enough semen he is added to the G-STAR sire list. With 30 new G-STAR bulls this proof round, these sires are readily available to everyone. This groups includes a wide array of outliers for various production, health and type traits. From this elite list, you can find a great selection of bulls to fit your genetic plan.

Alta FUTURE STAR logo for Facebook

FUTURE STARS

About a year after a bull is first released, we know results for both sire fertility and calving ease. We gather this data, analyze the results, and award the FUTURE STAR designation to only the bulls that prove themselves above average for sire fertility and less than 8% for sire calving ease and sire stillbirth.

This proof round, 13 bulls earned their FUTURE STAR status. This means they gained enough pregnancy check observations to prove their high fertility CONCEPT PLUS status. Plus, they have enough offspring born to prove their easy calvings.

FUTURE STARS are the way to go if you want the benefits of elite genomics, but prefer the added reliability of proven sire fertility and calving ease. You may give up some production and health as compared to the available G-STAR or ADVANTAGE only sires, but you gain peace of mind knowing that you’re upping your chances for a pregnancy and a live calf resulting from an easier calving.

Because of the known calving ability, FUTURE STARS are ideal options to use on heifers.

Now that you know the difference between each genomic sire option, and the progression a bull could make as he matures, compare the average genetic level of each group in the table below. You’ll see that the newest, Alta ADVANTAGE bulls have the highest genetic averages, followed by the G-STAR sires, and then by the more highly reliable FUTURE STARS.

TPIMilkFatProPTATUDCFLCSCEPLDPRSCS
Alta ADVANTAGE Only2743156777582.062.121.307.18.13.02.80
G-STAR2633161172581.761.721.096.96.82.32.86
FUTURE STAR2547136265501.481.591.006.46.82.12.78

It’s also important to note that every single bull atop our current daughter-proven list was once a part of the genomic-proven lists. The track record is significant for our current genomic favorites. Each proof round, we see these genomic bulls deliver on their initial predictions, and eventually graduate to daughter-proven success.

With that in mind, have confidence to use a team of sires from the Alta ADVANTAGE, G-STAR
or FUTURE STAR lists. You’ll optimize future profitability by selecting a group of bulls that meet your customized goals for production, health and conformation.

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Daughter-proven options to fit your genetic plan

Is high reliability part of your genetic plan? If so, select from several sire options atop our daughter-proven lineup that are either new to the proven ranks or have just added new daughter information.

These bulls offer a wide range of trait specialties to fit many different customized genetic plans.

11HO11293 AltaECHELON | ROBUST X GOLDWYN X ROY | 2404 TPI | 3288 LPI | 2475 PRO$

  • Great combination of production, fertility and functional conformation traits!
  • A high fertility Concept Plus sire with very low calving ease
  • A breed leader at #2 LPI and #7 Pro$ rank among all daughter-proven bulls in the industry!

11HO11493 AltaHOTROD | JEROD X AltaIOTA X GOLDWYN | CP| 2483 TPI | 3199 LPI | 2484 PRO$

  • New graduate from Future Star status – with high sire fertility and low calving ease
  • Tall, long, stylish cows
  • Youthful, well-attached udders – protect for short teats

11HO11419 AltaLEGAL | MOGUL X PLANET X LYNCH | CP | 511 | 2525 TPI | 3082 LPI | 2454 PRO$

  • Production specialist
  • Great milk yield and outstanding components
  • Functional type traits, with excellent height and width of rear udders

11HO11437 AltaSPRING | MOGUL X GERARD X MASCOL | 2563 TPI | 3152 LPI | 2163 PRO$

  • Now over 3.00 for UDC – outstanding, high, wide rear udders and strong fore udder attachments
  • Moderate-sized cows with great balance of dairyness and strength
  • International producer favorite!

11HO11380 AltaROBLE | MOGUL X OBSERVER X SHOTTLE | CP| 511| 2557 TPI | 3016 LPI | 2125 PRO$

  • Health and type trait specialist
  • High fertility Concept Plus sire and at an elite 4.1 DPR!
  • Stylish, high type daughters with outstanding udders (+3.11 UDC)

11HO11379 AltaRABO | MOGUL X OBSERVER X SHOTTLE | CP | 2520 TPI | 3080 LPI | 2115 PRO$

  • Medium-sized cows with great dairyness
  • Type, udder and foot & leg improver
  • A high fertility sire with low calving ease

11HO1422 AltaJAKE | PETRONE X OBSERVER X GOLDWYN | CP | 511 | 2520 TPI | 2980 LPI | 1782 PRO$

  • Health trait specialist at 8.2PL
  • Fertility leader at 5.2 DPR and with the coveted Concept Plus high fertility sire status
  • Moderate stature, youthful cows with great dairyness
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New evaluation to be released for digital dermatitis

Genomic evaluations for Digital Dermatitis (DD) will be officially available in Canada for Holsteins starting in December 2017.

Digital dermatitis is a common hoof lesion with an 18% incidence rate reported by hoof trimmers on farms. While the heritability is 8%, selecting against DD will help combat lameness on dairy farms.

Bulls will have an official progeny proof for DD with at least 20 daughters seen by a hoof trimmer in at least 10 different herds. The reliability for the trait will be 70% or greater after including genomic information. Bulls not meeting these requirements, as well as genotyped cows and heifers, will receive a genomic proof for DD. That reliability will be greater than 60%.

The proofs for DD are expressed as Relative Breeding Values (RBV). The average DD value for bulls is 100, as is the case for all functional traits in Canadian evaluations. When a bull is at the average of 100, 80% of his daughters are expected to have no cases of digital dermatitis. Since a higher number is more favorable, bulls with higher RBV are expected to have daughters with fewer digital dermatitis cases. Every 5-point increase in RBV results in 7% fewer cases of digital dermatitis in in a bull’s daughters.

Digital dermatitis trait correlations

DD is highly correlated with LPI (0.43) and Pro$ (0.42), so dairy producers using these Canadian indexes have already been indirectly selecting and making improvement for DD. DD is also highly correlated with many of the production and conformation traits:

  • Production: 0.37
  • Fat Yield: 0.36
  • Protein Yield: 0.33
  • Heel depth: 0.35
  • Feet & legs: 0.29
  • Conformation: 0.21

The ability to directly select for animals with less digital dermatitis will help reduce lameness in herds and improve overall animal welfare. It will currently only be available in Canadian evaluations for Holsteins, as there is limited data for other breeds.

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Predict future production using average daily gain

Genomic testing is a popular way to rank heifers as part of a strategic breeding plan. But it’s not the only way. If you’re looking to not only maximize genetic progress, but also future profit, there might be alternative methods to decide which heifers to cull and which to keep.

ADG as a female selection tool?

References to average daily gain (ADG) typically come from the beef industry and more recently, dairy nutritionists and researchers. Dairy-focused studies have proven that individual dairy farms can see the impact of ADG on future milk production potential. In fact, a study from Cornell University showed that for every one kilogram of pre-weaning ADG, calves produced 1,113 kilograms more milk during their first lactation1.

Weighing individual animals at set points early in life to determine their average daily gain can be an effective means to predict which animals will produce the most throughout their first and later lactations.

Take the example below. On this 2,850-cow Holstein farm in Wisconsin, weights are taken on each individual calf at birth and weaning, and calculated within their herd management software to figure out the ADG of each animal.

Table 1Number of cowsADGAvg. 1st Lactation 305-day ME milk
Group 1: Top 25% for highest ADG3322.1833105 lb
Group 2: Bottom 25% for lowest ADG3081.6731838 lb
Difference0.511267 lb

Here, we’ve broken down all first lactation animals into quartiles based on their initial average daily gain. The top animals for ADG gained nearly 2.2 pounds per day from birth to weaning, while the bottom 25% of animals for ADG gained 1.67 pounds per day during that time.

Fast forward two years to when these calves have entered the milking herd, and that difference in average daily gain equates to a real and noticeable 1267 pound per animal difference in first lactation 305-day ME milk production. This is on par with the results from 2012 Cornell University study mentioned above.

 

Genetics still matter

If we take this analysis one step further, we can see that genetics are able to express themselves to a fuller advantage in healthier calves that grow more each day.

When we split the groups from the same analysis shown above in Table 1 to do two separate genetic assessments we can see how animals in each group perform in relation to their genetic predictions. This shows us whether ADG affects whether an animal can produce to their genetic potential.

Table 2 takes only the first lactation cows that were among the top 25% of heifers for highest birth to weaning ADG. Within this high ADG group of animals, we compare 305ME milk production based on parent average for PTA Milk within that group.

Table 2: Highest ADG animalsNumber of cowsADGParent Average PTA MilkAvg. 1st Lact 305ME Milk
Top 50%: Highest Parent Avg PTAM1662.1958634503 lb
Bottom 50%: Lowest Parent Avg PTAM1662.1710531725 lb
Difference4812778

Here, it shows that among only the calves with the highest average daily gain, those animals with the higher parent average for PTA Milk calved in to produce nearly 2800 pounds more milk than the animals with a lower parent average for PTA Milk.

Table 3 looks at this the same way, but only splits out just the first lactation cows that were in the bottom 25% for lowest birth to weaning ADG. When we compare milk production within that isolated low ADG group, we see that a higher parent average for PTAM equated to just over 1800 additional pounds of milk in the first lactation compared to the animals with the lowest parent averages for PTAM.

Table 3: Lowest ADG animalsNumber of cowsADGParent Average PTA MilkAvg. 1st Lact 305ME Milk
Top 50%: Highest Parent Avg PTAM1521.6856932768 lb
Bottom 50%: Lowest Parent Avg PTAM1521.675530958 lb
Difference5141810

Within both groups of animals a higher parent average for PTAM meant even more milk than predicted by genetics. However, when you compare the difference in 1st lactation 305MEs you can see that the high ADG group outpaces the low ADG group by nearly an additional 1000 pounds of milk in the first lactation.

This means that when calves are given the best nutrition and care, and achieve higher average daily gains, their genetics are better able to express themselves beyond what’s even predicted.

Strategic management decisions

With this proof in mind, if your farm’s situation dictates culling extra heifers, it’s best to do that in a strategic way. While genomic testing certainly has its merits for this purpose, the power of monitoring and measuring ADGs can serve as an effective alternative.

If the animals that perform well early in life go on to perform better than herdmates later in life, it’s an easy decision to keep the fastest growing animals in your herd. If you cull those calves that perform at a sub-par level from the start, you can avoid the feed costs for animals that will produce less than herdmates in the future, and avoid housing for animals that you may not have room for on your farm.

Knowing that those healthy calves will put extra pounds in the tank down the road also enforces the power of proper and progressive calf nutrition and a sharp focus on overall calf health. Even when times are tight, the future of your milking herd should not be put on the back burner.

 

Points to ponder

  • When implementing a strategic plan to cull heifers, consider weighing each individual calf at various milestones in her life to determine average daily gains. A ranking based on ADG to sort which heifers to keep and which to cull can have a big impact on overall future costs of production.

  • Don’t let the genetics you select go to waste. An animal’s genetics are expressed best when she receives the best nutrition and care from day one. The amount each calf gains per day, even in those first few months, will make a major impact on future production potential.

 

References:

Soberon F, Raffrenato E, Everett RW and Van Amburgh ME. 2012. Preweaning milk replacer intake and effects on long-term productivity of dairy calves. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Feb;95(2):783-93. doi: 10.3168/jds.2011-4391.
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Genetics and A2 milk: what you need to know

As consumers continuously look for new ways to eat healthy, A2 milk is a trend that emerges on their radar. A2 milk has been a common brand in Australia and New Zealand for several years. It only made its entry to the US marketplace in 2015.

It’s a new concept for many people, so before you join in on the A2 hype, here are a few answers to questions you may have.

What is A2 milk?

A2 milk is produced only from cows having two copies of the A2 gene for beta casein.

To explain further, cows’ milk is about 87 percent water. The remaining 13 percent is a combination of lactose, fat, protein, and minerals that make up the solids in milk.

If we focus on the protein within milk, the major component of that protein is called casein. About 30% of the casein within milk is called beta casein. The two most common variants of the beta casein gene are A1 and A2, so any given bovine will be either A1A1, A1A2 or A2A2 for beta casein.

In the United States nearly 100% of the milk contains a combination of both A1 and A2 beta casein.

What is the benefit of A2 milk?

Researchers believe that A2 is the more natural variant of beta casein, and A1 was the result of a natural genetic mutation that occurred when cattle were first domesticated. With that in mind, studies have been done to see if people digest or react to true A2 milk differently than regular milk.

Some of those studies have found that people drinking milk exclusively from cows producing A2 milk were less susceptible to bloating and indigestion – leading some to conclude that A2 milk is a healthier option than regular milk. The exact science behind the difference in A1 versus A2 milk is complicated, but research has shown that digestive enzymes interact with A1 and A2 beta-casein proteins in different ways. Because of that, A1 and A2 milk are processed differently within the body.

Can you breed for A2 milk?

Yes, in fact the only way to have cows that produce A2 milk is to breed for it.

True A2 milk can only be produced from cattle possessing two copies of the A2 gene in their DNA. Each animal receives one copy of the gene from its sire and one copy from its dam. So for a chance to get an animal with the A2A2 makeup, you must breed a bull with at least one copy of the A2 allele to a cow with at least one copy of the A2 allele.

To ensure with 100% certainty that a female will produce A2 milk once she freshens, she must be the result of mating a cow with two copies of the A2 gene to a sire that also has two copies of the A2 gene.

Does A2 milk only come from colored breeds of dairy cattle?

Traditionally, colored breeds of dairy cattle, such as Jerseys and Guernseys have been the poster children for the A2 gene. Those two breeds still have a higher proportion of A2A2 animals. However, some of the popular Holstein sires of recent years have increased the prevalence of A2A2 sires in the black and white breed as well.

You may be surprised that about 40% of the Holstein sires in active AI lineups, including numerous household names, have two copies of the A2 gene. In addition, over 80% of Holstein sires have at least one copy of the A2 gene.

Is A2 milk the answer for people with lactose intolerance?

A2 milk contains the same amount of lactose as non-A2 milk. So in clinically-diagnosed cases of lactose intolerance, A2 milk will not provide the benefits that lactose-free milk would offer.

Since most cases of lactose intolerance are self-diagnosed, some doctors believe the cause of indigestion in those cases is actually linked to an A1 aversion rather than lactose intolerance. In those cases, drinking A2 milk may help prevent the side-effects otherwise experienced from drinking regular milk.

Should you select for A2 in your breeding program?

With this new information at hand, it may seem compelling to produce only true A2 milk. Many A2A2 sires are available, but you still have an opportunity cost by selecting only A2A2 sires.

When A2A2 is a limiting factor in your genetic selection, you’ll eliminate about half of all bulls available. That means you will likely miss out on pounds of milk, extra health and improved fertility traits.

Regardless of your selection decision around A2 sires, make sure it aligns with the customized genetic plan you put in place on your farm so you can maximize profitability and genetic progress in the direction of your goals.

 

Click HERE to view a list of Alta’s current A2A2 sires.

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Understand the new TPI changes

With August 2017 proofs Holstein Association USA (HA USA) will make updates to TPI, Udder Composite (UDC) and Foot & Leg Composite (FLC). The following information will help you understand these changes and how they may affect sire ranks.

As with any index changes, sires will re-rank. We can attribute most of the re-ranking to the fact that stature is being added to the calculations for UDC and FLC.

Industry standard index changes remind us how important it is to set your own customized genetic plan. While we review the changes being made to Udder Composite and TPI for the upcoming proof round, keep your own genetic plan in mind to ensure it continues to match your farm’s current goals and future plans.

Udder Composite changes

The biggest change that will take place within UDC is that stature is now incorporated with a negative emphasis to promote a more moderate sized frame on Holstein cows of the future. While all individual trait weights within UDC will adjust slightly, stature will now have a relative weight of 17% of UDC. This change comes mostly from the reduced emphasis on udder depth.

A comparison between the previous and new versions of UDC is shown in Table 1 below, with major changes in bold.

TABLE 1Previous percent weight within UDCAugust 2017 percent weight within UDC% Change
Fore udder16%13%-3%
Rear udder height16%19%3%
Rear udder width12%16%4%
Udder cleft9%7%-2%
Udder depth35%17%-18%
Front teat placement5%3%-2%
Rear teat placement (now called Rear teat optimum)7%4%-3%
Teat length (now called Teat length optimum)-4%4%
Stature--17%17%

The other change taking place with udder traits is that both rear teat placement and teat length will now be two-way traits, and be called rear teat optimum and teat length optimum, respectively.

The rear teat length and placement of the Holstein breed has evolved to a shorter and closer average. By adjusting to an intermediate optimum, rather than a close and short ideal, is intended to help get the breed back to a more desirable norm.

The new Foot & Leg Composite

As with UDC, the main difference in the new FLC comes from the addition of stature to the index. Table 2 shows that stature is added mostly from the reduced weight now placed on foot angle and rear leg side view.

TABLE 2Previous percent weight within FLCAugust 2017 percent weight within FLC% Change
Foot angle24%8%-17%
Rear legs rear view19%18%-1%
Foot and leg score50%58%8%
Stature-17%17%
Rear leg side view8%--8%

TPI updates

In addition to the UDC and FLC updates, the TPI formula will also be revamped. While the weights within the production, health and conformation categories remain the same, the individual trait weights within the production and health buckets will change.

The biggest change to the new TPI formula is found within the production category as a new protein to fat ratio. You can see all changes in Table 3 below.

TABLE 3Previous weight within TPIAugust 2017 weight within TPI
Protein2721
Fat1617
Feed Efficiency38
PRODUCTION TOTAL46%46%
Fertility Index1313
Productive Life74
Livability-3
Somatic Cell Score-5-5
Daughter Calving Ease22
Daughter Stillbirth11
HEALTH TOTAL28%28%
Udder Composite1111
PTA Type88
Foot & Leg Composite66
Dairy Form-1-1
CONFORMATION TOTAL26%26%

HA USA reweighted protein, fat and feed efficiency, and therefore adjusted the fat to protein ratio. Starting in August, there will be 6% less emphasis directly on protein, 5% emphasis added to feed efficiency and 1% more emphasis on pounds of fat.

For your reference, feed efficiency is calculated as follows. Please note that Body Weight Composite within this formula is the new calculation to replace Body Size Composite.

Feed Efficiency = (-0.0187 x Milk) + (1.28 x Fat) + (1.95 x Protein) – (12.4 x Body Weight Composite)

In addition to the adjustment on the production bucket, HA USA will now incorporate livability as part of the TPI formula. The 3% weight on livability will come directly from that same reduction in emphasis on productive life.

What do these changes mean?

The new addition of stature to Udder Composite and Foot & Leg Composite, along with the TPI updates, are in place with an overarching goal to aid producers in creating more moderate sized, efficient and profitable cows.

Industry standard indexes can change at any point. These changes reinforce the importance of setting your own customized genetic plan. Work with your trusted Alta advisor to review the weights you place on each individual production, health and conformation trait. We want to help you ensure your plan always aligns with your farms current situation and future goals.

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Proof terminology explained

The letters, numbers and acronyms on a proof sheet can be complicated. Here, we break down the meaning and explanation of the proof indexes, traits and terminology.
Selection indexes

Genetic selection indexes are set by national organizations or breed associations. Genetic indexes help dairy producers focus on a total approach to genetic improvement, rather than limiting progress by single trait selection.

However, each farm is unique, with different situations and future plans. With that in mind, it’s important to understand what traits are included in each industry standard index. When you know what’s included, you can more effectively evaluate if the index truly matches your farm’s goals.

TPI = Total Performance Index
TPI is calculated by the Holstein Association USA (HA-USA) and includes the following trait weightings.

Image to show the weights on production, health and type for the TPI Index

PRODUCTION TRAITS = 46%

21% Pounds of protein
17% Pounds of fat
8% Feed efficiency

HEALTH TRAITS = 28%

13% Fertility index
-5% Somatic cell score
4% Productive life
3% Cow livability
2% Daughter calving ease
1% Daughter stillbirth

TYPE TRAITS = 26%

11% Udder composite
8% PTA type
6% Foot & leg composite
-1% Dairy form

NM$ = Net Merit Dollars

NM$ is a genetic index value calculated by the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding (CDCB). It describes the expected lifetime profit per cow as compared to the base of the population born in 2010. Trait weightings are generally updated approximately every five years and include emphasis on the following traits. The current trait breakdown is in place as of April 2017. Please note that trait weights are rounded to the nearest percentage.

Image to show trait weights for production, health and conformation within Net Merit $.

PRODUCTION TRAITS = 43%

24% Pounds of fat
18% Pounds of protein
-1% Pounds of milk

HEALTH TRAITS = 41%

13% Productive life
7% Cow livability
7% Daughter pregnancy rate
-6% Somatic cell score
5% Calving ability
2% Cow conception rate
1% Heifer conception rate

TYPE TRAITS = 16%

7% Udder composite
6% Body weight composite
3% Foot & leg composite

CM$ = Cheese Merit Dollars

CM$ is an index calculated to account for milk sold to be made into cheese or other dairy products. The current CM$ index was adjusted in April 2017 and the following trait weights are considered. Please take note that trait weights shown have been rounded to the nearest percentage.

Image showing the trait breakdowns for production, health and type within the Cheese Merit dollars formula

PRODUCTION = 50%

22% Pounds of protein
20% Pounds of fat
-8% Pounds of milk

HEALTH = 37%

12% Productive life
-7% Somatic cell score
6% Cow livability
6% Daughter pregnancy rate
4% Calving ability
1% Cow conception rate
1% Heifer conception rate

TYPE TRAITS = 13%

6% Udder
5% Body weight composite
2% Foot & leg

GENERAL PROOF TERMS

CDCB: Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding
Calculates production and health trait information for all breeds

MACE: Multiple-trait across country evaluation
Denotes that a bull’s proof evaluation includes daughter information from multiple countries

PTA: Predicted transmitting ability
The estimate of genetic superiority or inferiority for a given trait that an animal is predicted to transmit to its offspring. This value is based on the animal’s own records and the records of known relatives.

EFI: Effective future inbreeding
An estimate, based on pedigree, of the level of inbreeding that the progeny of a given animal will contribute in the population if mated at random

GFI: Genomic future inbreeding
Similar to EFI, an animal’s GFI als predicts the level of inbreeding he/she will contribute in the population if mated at random. Yet, GFI provides a more accurate prediction. It takes into account genomic test results and the actual genes an animal has.

aAa: an independent method for making mating decisions

DMS: a separate, independent method for making mating decisions

 

PRODUCTION TRAIT TERMS

PTAM: Predicted transmitting ability for milk

PTAP: Predicted transmitting ability for protein

PTAF: Predicted transmitting ability for fat

PRel: the percent reliability of a sire’s production proof

 

HEALTH & FERTILITY TRAIT TERMS

PL: Productive Life
Measured as the total number of additional or fewer productive months that you can expect from a bull’s daughters over their lifetime. Cows receive credit for each month of lactation, with more credit given to the first months around peak production, and less credit given for months further out in lactation. More credit is also given for older cows than for younger animals.  

LIV: Cow livability
Measure of a cow’s ability to remain alive while in the milking herd.

SCS: Somatic cell score
The log score of somatic cells per milliliter.

DPR: Daughter pregnancy rate
Daughter Pregnancy Rate is defined as the percentage of non-pregnant cows that become pregnant during each 21-day period. A DPR of ‘1.0’ implies that daughters from this bull are 1% more likely to become pregnant during that estrus cycle than a bull with an evaluation of zero. Each increase of 1% in PTA DPR equals a decrease of 4 days in PTA days open.

HCR: Heifer conception rate
A virgin heifer’s ability to conceive – defined as the percentage of inseminated heifers that become pregnant at each service. An HCR of 1.0 implies that daughters of this bull are 1% more likely to become pregnant as a heifer than daughters of a bull with an evaluation of 0.0

CCR: Cow conception rate
A lactating cow’s ability to conceive – defined as the percentage of inseminated cows that become pregnant at each service. A bull’s CCR of 1.0 implies that daughters of this bull are 1% more likely to become pregnant during that lactation than daughters of a bull with an evaluation of 0.0.

HRel: the reliability percentage for a sire’s health traits

 

HEALTH & CALVING TRAIT TERMS

SCE: Sire calving ease
The percentage of bull’s calves born that are considered difficult in first lactation animals. Difficult births include those coded as a score of 3, 4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5.

DCE: Daughter calving ease
The percentage of a bull’s daughters who have difficult births during their first calving. Difficult calvings are those coded as a 3, 4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5.

SSB: Sire stillbirth
The percentage of a bull’s offspring that are born dead to first lactation animals.

DSB: Daughter stillbirth
The percentage of a bull’s daughters who give birth to a dead calf in their first lactation.

 

TYPE / CONFORMATION TRAIT TERMS

PTAT, UDC and FLC are all calculated by the Holstein Association USA.

PTAT: Predicted transmitting for type – referring to the total conformation of an animal

UDC: Udder composite index; comprised of the following linear trait weights:
19% Rear udder height
17% Udder depth
-17% Stature
6% Rear udder width
13% Fore udder attachment
7% Udder Cleft
4% Rear teat optimum
4% Teat length optimum
3% Front teat placement

FLC: Foot and leg composite index; comprised of the following trait weights:
58% foot and leg classification score
18% rear legs rear view
-17% stature
8% foot angle

TRel = the percent reliability for a sire’s conformation/type proof

 

GENETIC CODES

POLLED
PO: observed polled
PC: genomic tested as heterozygous polled; means 50% of offspring are expected to be observed as polled
PP: genomic tested as homozygous polled; means that 100% of offspring are expected to be observed as polled

COAT COLOR
RC: carries the recessive gene for red coat color
DR: carries a dominant gene for red coat color

RECESSIVES & HAPLOTYPES

These codes, or symbols representing the code, will only show up on a proof sheet if an animal is a carrier or test positive for one of the following. The acronyms denoting that an animal is tested free of a recessive will only show up on its pedigree.

BY: Brachyspina
TY: Tested free of brachyspina

BL: BLADS, or Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency
TL: Tested free of BLADS

CV: CVM or Complex vertebral malformation
TV: Tested free of CVM

DP: DUMPS, or Deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase
TD: Tested free of DUMPS

MF: Mulefoot
TM: Tested free of mulefoot

HH1, HH2, HH3, HH4, HH5: Holstein haplotypes that negatively affect fertility
HCD: Holstein haplotype for cholesterol deficiency

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Alta Advantage Showcase Tour 2017 – by the numbers

Guests from around the world joined together to share management strategies and insight during the 18th Alta Advantage Showcase Tour held in Michigan June 21-23, 2017.

On-farm stations were set up to provide insight on all areas of dairy herd management. Some of the topics covered included:

  • Reproduction
  • milk quality and parlor management
  • transition cow management
  • feed and nutrition
  • colostrum management and calf raising
  • heifer raising
  • labor organization
  • genetic planning
  • dairy technology
  • Performance Pens featuring some of the newest Alta sires to have milking daughters
  • and more!
Here’s a look at the 2017 Alta Advantage Showcase Tour, by the numbers:
360guests
26countries represented
18Alta Advantage Showcase Tours now complete
35on-farm stations that guests experienced throughout the tour
6charter buses required to transport guests
19,000cows milked among all pre-tour and Showcase host farms
9outstanding host dairies that graciously opened their farm for our guests to visit
Pre-tour host: Rich-Ro South Dairy | St. Johns, MI
Pre-tour host: Berlyn Acres | Fowler, MI
Walnutdale Farms | Wayland, MI
Prairie View Dairy | Delton, MI
Schaendorf Farms | Allegan, MI
Tubergen Dairy | Ionia, MI
Simon Farms | Westphalia, MI
Steenblik Dairy | Pewamo, MI
Double Eagle Dairy | Middleton, MI

These numbers sum up to ONE tremendous tour!

Guests enjoyed the friendly camaraderie and the ability to learn from both our host farm owners and others on the tour. These experiences left everyone with a lasting impression of Alta’s progressive approach to create value, build trust and deliver results to clients around the world.

 

Click HERE to view the collection of photos and videos from the tour!

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The proof is in your numbers

Let us show you…

We can show you the proof that genetics are one of the cheapest investments you can make to improve the profitability and efficiency of your herd. Proof sheet numbers may seem unclear or unrealistic. So we break them down to see how they translate within your own herd.

When you use a herd management software program, we can create a genetic assessment of your herd to see if genetics really work on your farm.

Do your 2-year-olds give as many pounds of milk as their sires’ proofs predict? Do these cows become pregnant as quickly as their sires’ DPR numbers suggest? And do daughter stillbirth numbers prove to be accurate indicators of DOAs?

When we do a genetic assessment for your herd, it’s important to realize that we only take into account first-lactation animals in order to minimize environmental effects. Phenotype equals genetics plus environment. So when we eliminate – or at least minimize – environmental influences, the actual performance differences we see are due to genetics.

We want to show you how those proof numbers translate to more pounds of milk, more pregnancies and fewer stillborn calves. So here, we take one of our real DairyComp 305 analyses of a real 1,500-cow herd for answers.

The proof in genetics: PTA Milk (PTAM)

We start with PTAM, which tells us how many more pounds of milk a first-lactation animal will produce compared to herdmates on a 305-day ME basis. We set out to find if higher PTAM values on this farm actually convert to more pounds of milk in the tank.

In this example, we sort all first-lactation animals with a known Holstein sire ID, solely on their sires’ PTAM values. We then compare that to their actual 305-day ME milk records.

As Table 1 shows, based on genetics, we expect the top 25 percent of first-lactation heifers to produce 1,541 more pounds of milk on a 305ME basis than their lower PTAM counterparts. In reality, we see a 2,662-pound difference between the top PTAM animals and the bottom in actual daughter performance.

Table 1: How does selection for PTAM affect actual 305ME performance?
# of cowsAvg. Sire PTAMAvg. 305ME Production
Top 25% high sire PTAM178150844080
Bottom 25% low sire PTAM171-3341418
Difference15412662
This means that for every pound of milk this herd selects for, they actually get an additional 1.69 pounds of milk. So these first-lactation animals are producing well beyond their genetic potential.

Why do they get more than expected?

When we do most on-farm genetic assessments, we find that the 305ME values closely match the predicted difference based on sire PTAM. However, in this example, the production exceeds what’s expected by more than 1,100 pounds.

We often attribute that bonus milk top-level management, where genetics are allowed to express themselves. This particular herd provides a comfortable and consistent environment for all cows. All of these 2-year-olds are fed the same ration, housed in the same barn and given the same routine. At more than a 40,000-pound average 305ME, this is certainly a well-managed herd, which allows the top genetic animals to exceed their genetic production potential.

Perhaps even more importantly, the identification in this herd is more than 95 percent accurate. Without accurate identification, this analysis simply won’t work. That’s because some cows whose real sire information puts them in the bottom quartile will actually appear in the top quartile and vice-versa.

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